The types of aircraft used for transportation. It is generally divided into three types:
1. Passenger Flight
It consists of seats for passengers (Main deck + Upper deck), cargo can only be carried below and at the end of the plane. Most of them are passenger baggage.
2.Combi Flight or Combination of Passenger & Main deck loader
Includes a seat for the passenger above and the remaining space can carry all the goods. This type of aircraft will provide cargo services alongside passenger transport. There will be cargo in the belly area of the aircraft. Currently, cargo services are an important source of additional income for many passenger airlines. Therefore, airlines that offer combined services are called “Combined Carriers”
3. Charter Flight, Cargo Flight, Freighter
It’s an all-cargo aircraft. There isn’t passenger seat. All-Cargo-Air-Lines which is a specific transport of goods without transporting passengers, so it is called Freighters. There are less than 40 airlines that provide this service and are members of the International Air Transport Association.
10 types of special cargo when transporting by air
Special goods are goods that require special care and control according to the type and characteristics of each product. Otherwise the product may be lost or deteriorate during transportation. What are the 10 special items that you need to be careful about when transporting by air ? Let’s see.
1. Fragile Cargo (FRA)
Fragile cargo means products that are fragile, fragile or easily damaged. If there is an impact, including glassware, pottery, porcelain, etc. Transportation must be packed in a strong package such as a wooden crate and should be a new package if it has been used must be in good condition and strong within a suitable suspension material, liquid containers made of fragile materials such as glass must use cushioning material. that can absorb all the liquid and must be labeled “Fragile items” and signs “Follow the Arrow”
2. Heavy Cargo (HEA)
Heavy cargo means goods that weigh more than 150 kilograms per carton.
3. Human Remains (HUM)
The carriage of human remains must be documented with a “death certificate”. As for the ashes, they must be placed in a fragile container with cushioning material and must contain documents. “Cremation certificate” is attached.
4. Live Animals (AVI)
Transportation of live animals is subject to the regulations governing the transportation of live animals under the following conditions:
– The animal’s health must not be sick or sick or diseased. Care must be taken during transportation and animals that are pregnant are not allowed to be transported.
– Cages used to transport animals must be suitable for the type of animal. Must be clean and waterproof, as well as easy to transport and labeled. “Live animals”
– Foods used to feed animals must be included in the weight of the cargo.
– Transportation of live animals must be reserved in advance. along the flight route
– Live animals cannot be combined with other goods under the same consignment note.
5. Magnetized Materials (MAG)
Magnetic goods means goods that can produce a magnetic field which affects the navigation system of the aircraft such as compass and radar. The magnetic goods package must be labeled. “Magnetic Products”
6. Oversized Cargo (BIG)
Oversized cargo means goods that are wider or longer than the size of the cargo sheet. 88″x125″,96×125″ or a size that is difficult to fit in a narrow body aircraft. Heavy cargo and oversized cargo must be confirmed before each shipment.
7. Perishable Cargo (PER)
Perishable cargo means products that are easy to perish or perish easily. such as dairy products, meat, fresh fish, plants, vegetables and fruits, etc. The carriage of this type of cargo requires advance preparation and a reserve of cargo throughout the flight path. Each package of perishables must be labeled. “Fresh food perishable” and signs “Follow the Arrow”
8. Valuable Cargo (VAL)
Valuable Goods means the following goods:
– Goods whose shipping valuation exceeds USD 1000 per 1 kg of gross weight.
– gold or platinum both forged or unforged in various ways
– Banknotes, bills, traveler’s checks, stock certificates, postage stamps and credit cards.
– Precious gems include diamonds, rubies, emeralds, sapphires, pearls, pearls, and cultured pearls.
– Accessories made with precious stones
Receipt of valuable goods requires careful supervision of transportation in every step of the way, and there must be a reserve of cargo throughout the flight route. There should be no transit points or, if any, minimal and valuable cargo packaging. must be strong
9. Vulnerable Cargo (VUN)
Goods at risk of loss mean goods that are not considered as valuable goods. But having a characteristic and size that is favorable or has an attractive price to cause theft to be grabbed easily, such as cameras, watches, calculators, etc.
10. Wet Cargo (WET)
Products containing water require extra care in packaging and handling. to prevent water leaking out causing damage to other products or corrode the cargo equipment and cargo room inside the belly of the aircraft causing damage. Especially products with elements of salt water or water that comes out of seafood products The packaging of this type of product must be waterproof and leakage well, which is mostly used in foam boxes.
11. Dangerous Goods (DG)
High-risk products pose risks to life, property and the environment. If dangerous goods are transported, they must be clearly labeled. These are divided into nine categories by the United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods):
Class 1 Explosives are substances that can explode. when exposed to heat, sparks, flames or when friction occurs affect or acted upon by the detonator
Class 2 Gas means a substance at 50 °C with a vapor pressure greater than 300 kPa or is completely gaseous at 20 °C and with a pressure of 101.3 kPa, such as compressed gas, toxic gas, liquid gas. gases in a liquid state at low temperatures and includes gases dissolved in solution under pressure When leaking, it can create a flammable hazard. and/or toxic and displaces oxygen in the air
Class 3 Flammable liquids mean liquids or liquid mixtures that have a flash point of not more than 60.5 °C from the closed-cup test or not more than 65.6 °C from the cup test. Opened-cup Test Flammable liquid vapors readily ignite in the presence of an ignition source, for example, acetone, fuel, thinner, etc. These liquids emit flammable vapors capable of igniting at 61°C (141°F). ) c.c.* or at lower temperatures
Class 4 Flammable solids Substances liable to spontaneous combustion. and substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases (Flammable Solids, Substances liable to spontaneous combustion, Substances whice in contact with water emit flammable gases). is a dangerous object May cause a fire.
Class 5 Oxidizing substances and organic peroxides are divided into 2 subtypes:
1. Oxidizing substances are substances capable of giving off oxygen without the need for oxidation. Burn or be an object that causes the process. Similar oxidation increases the risk of fire to the material. others placed nearby and more violent
2. Organic peroxides are organic materials with two oxygen structures and may be regarded as derivatives of hydrogen peroxide in which one or both of the hydrogen atoms are replaced. organic radicals This material is unstable and rapidly decays by itself.
Class 6 Toxic and Infectious Substances, divided into 2 sub-categories:
1. Toxic Sustances These objects can cause death or serious illness when enters the body through skin contact or inhalation or ingestion Almost all poisonous objects emit toxic gases. When burned or heated, it decomposes, and some species, in addition to being toxic, also have properties. Arsenic, Arsenic trioxide, Arsenic trichloride, Arsenic tribromide, Barium cyanide, Chloronitrobenzene, Potassium cyanide, Dichloromethane, Barium chloride, Copper cyanide, Sodium cyanide, Sodiumsilicofluoride, Aniline.
2. Infectious Substances are objects that contain microorganisms that cause disease in humans and animals. Two observations were made:
First, microbes and genetically modified organisms do not follow the word. The definition of a Category 2 object should be classified as a Category 9.
Secondly, microbial toxins (Toxins) that are not or contain infectious substances should be considered to be in Category 1, defined according to UN. 3172, which is a toxin extracted from living organisms.
Class 7 Radioactive material means an object that decays and emits more than 0.002 microqueries of radiation per hour. The weight of that object is 1 gram or 70 k Bq/kg. This radiation is invisible to the naked eye. We can receive radiation both inside and outside the body, for example when near a radioactive object and exposed to radiation emitted. or eating food contaminated with radioactive substances
Class 8 Corrosive substances refer to solids or liquids which, by chemical reaction, are corrosive. Causes severe damage to living tissues. Or destroy the goods / transportation vehicles when the substance leaks. The vapors of some substances of this type cause irritation to the nose and eyes. For example, hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide, etc.
Class 9 Miscellaneous Hazardous Materials mean dangerous objects and articles. which are not classified in Category 1 to Category 8 and shall include substances with a temperature not lower than 100 °C in liquid state. Or at a temperature not lower than 240 degrees Celsius in solid state, such as ammonium nitrate type B (UN.2071), Asbestos, Zinc hydrosulfite, PBC, etc.
However, the goods sent out by air must have strong packaging to withstand the transportation conditions. Whether it is in the form of a paper box, suitcase, envelope, bag, sack, cage or crate, etc.
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